From European Order to the Current Flux


  • Ms. Sumaiya Qureshi
  • Dr. Azhar Ahmad


Westphalia, bipolarity, resurgence, European order


The current form of the international system as the foundation to govern the relations between states began to take shape in the sixteenth century Europe when strategic and diplomatic relations were formed between great powers. The treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648, also known as ‘Peace of Westphalia’, has provided legitimate principles and ground for the formation of an international system and introduced the concepts of state sovereignty, mediation between nations, and diplomacy which ultimately ended the devastating Thirty Years War in Central Europe. After the two World Wars, the baton of global leadership was transferred from Europe to two non-European states i.e. the United States and the Soviet Union, an era of bipolarity where the two super powers jostled for world hegemony. After the demise of the Soviet Union, United States became the sole super power with all the major powers of western Europe gathered under its leadership. Once again, the existing global order is rapidly melting down and as the world is shifting from unipolarity to multipolarity, the international system is exposed to instability and chaos. The emergence of major powers such as China and Russia, is representing a geopolitical change which implies the resurgence of Asia in the global system. The continuous and sustainable economic growth of China will influence the future layout of the system and help China to enhance its economic, political, and strategic influence across the globe.


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Author Biographies

Ms. Sumaiya Qureshi

MS Scholar at Bahria University, Islamabad.

Dr. Azhar Ahmad

Professor at the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad.




How to Cite

Ms. Sumaiya Qureshi, and Dr. Azhar Ahmad. “From European Order to the Current Flux”. Journal of European Studies (JES) 37, no. 2 (July 1, 2021): 1–19. Accessed April 13, 2024.