The Journal of European Studies (JES) is an open-access biannual Journal published by the Area Study Centre for Europe (ASCE), University of Karachi. It publishes articles under the terms of the Creative Common Attribution 4.0 International License Policy [CC – BY]. It acknowledges the copyright of the author for his/her research work providing with the right of free access to users to the contents of articles published in the JES. For the editorial and publishing process, the editor of JES holds the publishing right on the behalf of the ASCE.