Policies of Artificial Intelligence in the EU: Learning Curve from the UK and China?


  • Ms. Tanzeela Jameel
  • Dr. Adam Saud




Artificial Intelligence, Adversarial AI, Cyber security, the EU policy, UK and China.


Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be traced back to John McCarthy who is considered as one of the pioneers of the AI discipline. 1 AI has emerged as one of the most important realities in the first quarter of the 21 st century. AI is being used in many industries including healthcare, production and manufacturing, military modernization, etc. Whereas there are many benefits of AI, it has its drawbacks as well. There is always a possibility that technology getting into the wrong hands. This malicious use of AI is commonly known as “adversarial AI”, which cannot just cause financial loss to countries but also increase the ratio of cybercrimes. This work sheds light on the impact of adversarial AI from the point of view of governance. More specifically, it takes a detailed look at the AI policies of the European Union (EU) and identifies different cyber-security loopholes. Based on some recent events, this study also highlights the role of adversarial AI in promoting cybercrimes in the form of phishing and data breach attacks in the EU. Finally, we provide arguments on how the EU can learn from some countries, like China and the UK, in order to strengthen its AI policies.


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Author Biographies

Ms. Tanzeela Jameel

IR Graduate at the Bahria University, Islamabad.

Dr. Adam Saud

Professor at the Bahria University, Islamabad. 




How to Cite

Ms. Tanzeela Jameel, and Dr. Adam Saud. “Policies of Artificial Intelligence in the EU: Learning Curve from the UK and China?”. Journal of European Studies (JES) 38, no. 2 (July 1, 2022): 1–17. Accessed December 6, 2022. https://asce-uok.edu.pk/journal/index.php/JES/article/view/252.